1-Pascual guides the cattle of the Pai Ote Colla community to the high sectors of the Andes mountain to spend the summer, their destination will be Llano el Leoncito, at 3800 meters above sea level in the Atacama Desert, outside of Copiapó city, Chile, Sunday November 17, 2013. Transhumance is an ancient technique practiced by indigenous ethnic groups in the Atacama Desert to survive in the driest place on the planet.
2- Ercilia Araya Altamirano (left), Pai Ote colla community president, prepares breakfast with her son, Francisco Pasten Altamirano (right), in the Tapia sector, on the outskirts of Copiapó city, during a break in the transhumance of more than 500 heads of cattle to the area of Barranquilla, near the Pacific Ocean, Saturday, March 26, 2014. To survive the harsh winters, the community moves cattle at the end of the summer from the Andes Mountain range to the shores of the Pacific Ocean.
3- Pascual and Berto Pasten, members of the Pai Ote colla community, herd the cattle for five hours until Vega Redonda, the community base camp, outside Copiapó city, Chile, Wednesday, March 26, 2014. Once in Vega Redonda they are going to use trucks to complete the transhumance to low-lying areas near the sea, 200km away.
4- Pascual, a member of the Pai Ote colla community, prepares a goat for slaughter in the area of El Patón, at 4400 meters above sea level and 400 kilometres Copiapó city, Chile, Saturday, March 7, 2015. The area of El Patón is located between the Copiapó volcano and the Pre-Cordillera chain, a few kilometres from the border with the Argentine Republic. This inhospitable area is ideal for parking livestock during the summer because the low rainfall generates vegetation that serves as pasture.
5- Jilberto Pasten Quispe (right), 50 years old with his nephew Piero(left), shines his way from the roof of his truck with a flashlight at Barranquilla, just Copiapó city, Chile, Wednesday, March 26,2014. Jilberto is Ercilia Araya Altamirano’s husband, together they are responsible for the survival of the Colla indigenous customs and practices in the Atacama Desert, the most arid place on the planet.
6- Ercilia Araya Altamirano, (left), Francisco Pasten Araya, (center) and Jilberto Pasten Quispe (right), sleep outdoors in the area known as El Patón, near the international border with the Argentine Republic and 400 km from Copiapó, in Chile, Friday, March 6,2015. After an exhausting day of riding in the middle of the Atacama Desert, the family rests under a starry sky.
7- Jorge Finke walks through a tobacco plantation, he is a tobacco producer living in the town of Dos de Mayo, a few kilometres far from San Vicente, at the Misiones province, Argentina, Wednesday, January 14, 2014. He is planting Misionero tobacco, a variety that does not require much care or use of agrochemicals like Burley tobacco. He states that nowadays tobacco is no longer profitable, taking part in the growing tendency of farmers who abandon the tobacco. One of his daughters died at age 22 due to kidney problems.
8- A gas mask used by tobacco workers lies on ground at the San Vicente town, Misiones province, Argentina, Saturday, January 18, 2014. Ever since the agrotoxins situation became public, with complaints filed during the late 1990s, tobacco companies have started to force their registered workers to use special protections suits that they sell themselves. However, the high temperatures, which reach an average of 30°C all year long, make it impossible to work using this attire, causing many workers go without them. San Vicente, Misiones, Argentina.
9-Lucas Krauser, 7 years-old boy with microcephaly and cerebral palsy, is playing with a soccer ball at the San Vicente town, Misiones province, Argentina, Sunday, 11 January, 2014. His diagnosis was made 3 months after his birth, after visiting several hospitals and doctors. Luis Krauser, his father, was raised among tobacco crops and states that tobacco is his actual source of employment. Nevertheless, ever since Lucas’ birth, he has decided to stop using the agrochemicals he refers to as ‘poisons’. He is still forced to keep cultivating tobacco for a living and for making use of the social insurance provided by the Association of Tobacco Planters from the Misiones province (A.P.T.M), which is the only one willing to cover the expensive life-long treatment for Lucas. His wife Angelica admits she has manipulated agrochemicals before and during pregnancy, helping her husband at work.
10- Jesica Antonela Scheeffer looks to the camera in her house at the Vialidad neighbourhood in Fracran town, 38 km north of San Vicente, Misiones province, Argentina, Wednesday, January 15, 2014. She turned 11 years old in early February, and at the time of her birth she did not present any anomalies. About a year and a half ago, she suffered the cutting of her tendons. Her mother, Ramona Delina, recalls thinking the problem was related to growth issues, but as days went by, Jesica’s back started to yield. To this day, Jesica walks in a completely bent position and lacks a defined diagnosis. Ramona has manipulated agrotoxins, since she worked for many years as a rural labourer.
11- María Isabel Borozski, 19 years old, holds her daughter Tatiana Borozski at her house in Puerto Argentino neighbourhood, 16 kms away from the National Route 14, the principal way to San Vicente city, Misiones province, Argentina, Thursday, January 16, 2014. Tatiana was admitted to the hospital for 45 days at her birth. At present, she takes phenobarbital regularly, a drug used with the epileptic . Isabel, her mother, lives with her parents and younger siblings, Luis Alberto (7) and Micaela (10). In addition to Tatiana (3), she has a 1 ½ year-old child, and is 7 months pregnant. She does not receive any allowance or disability pension.
12- The silhouette of a catholic cross at sunset In the San Vicente cemetery, San Vicente city, Misiones province, Argentina, Friday, January 17, 2014. At the children sector of the cemetery, rest some of the victims of agrotoxin use. As masseur Roberto Da Silva explains, even if the close relation is hard to explain, a child suffering from malformations generated by chemical agents can reach a visible improvement thanks to the treatment he provides. In the case of inherited paralysis or meningitis, it is not possible to reach what Roberto calls Evolution Circle.
13- Double exposition picture with 35mm colour negative: The first exposition was made at Mejillones, a Chilean port city and commune in Antofagasta province, the second shot was taken across Bolivia. A woman waits to board a ship that takes her to Copacabana, in the Strait of Tiquina, Titicaca Lake, Department of La Paz, Bolivia, Saturday, October 11, 2014.
On August 6th 1825, the Republic of Bolivar (name with which Bolivia became independent) was founded, with its territorial base on the ancient Real Audiencia of Charcas, with 500kms of coastline. 7 years prior, in 1818, the Republic of Chile obtains its independence, setting its north border in the Atacama Desert.
14- Double exposition picture with 35mm colour negative: The first exposition was made at Mejillones, a Chilean port city and commune in Antofagasta province, the second shot was taken across Bolivia. The Virgin Our Lady of Mercy is carried around the streets of the historic Potosí centre, on the day of the commemoration of her holiness, Potosí, Tomás Frías province, Department of Potosí, Bolivia, Sunday, October 5, 2014.
In August 10th 1866 the first treaty on limits was signed between Chile and Bolivia, fixing the border in parallel 24°, and establishing the joint exploitation of guano, metals and minerals in the area between parallels 23° and 25°.
15- Double exposition picture with 35mm colour negative: The first exposition was made at Mejillones, a Chilean port city and commune in Antofagasta province, the second shot was taken across Bolivia. A llama approaches the road, on the way to the town of Colchani, Uyuni, Antonio Quijarro province, Department of Uyuni, Bolivia, Thursday, October 2, 2014.
On August 6th 1874 the second treaty of limits between Bolivia and Chile was signed, in which Parallel 24° is ratified as an international limit. In addition, it was established that Chilean capitals would not be subject to new taxes.
16- Double exposition picture with 35mm colour negative: The first exposition was made at Mejillones, a Chilean port city and commune in Antofagasta province, the second shot was taken across Bolivia. Two women waits at the market, Uyuni, Antonio Quijarro province, Department of Uyuni, Bolivia, Friday, October 3, 2014.
On February 4th 1879, without prior declaration of war, Chile militarily invades the Bolivian port of Antofagasta, the Bolivian province of the Littoral was constituted in 1867 as a Department with an approximate surface area of 120.000 km2 with the ports of Antofagasta, Cobija, Tocopilla and Mejillones.
17- Double exposition picture with 35mm colour negative: The first exposition was made at Mejillones, a Chilean port city and commune in Antofagasta province, the second shot was taken across Bolivia. A man approaches a vessel to travel to Copacabana from the southern part of Isla del Sol, Titicaca Lake, Department of La Paz, Bolivia, Sunday, October 12, 2014.
The Pacific War ,1879 to 1884, was the result of Chile’s border claims of coastal Bolivian territory of the Atacama Desert. In 1884, Chile and Bolivia signed a truce treaty, keeping the domain of Chile over the Bolivian Littoral and getting the access to the sea.
18- Double exposition picture with 35mm colour negative: The first exposition was made at Mejillones, a Chilean port city and commune in Antofagasta province, the second shot was taken across Bolivia. The silhouette of Mrs. Juana stands in contrast as she walks near the viewpoint at the beltway, in the outskirts of Potosí, Tomás Frías province, Department of Potosí, Bolivia, Saturday, October 4, 2014.
On October 20th 1904 the Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Bolivia and Chile is signed. This treaty establishes for Chile the domain over the occupied territories and recognizes in favour of Bolivia the right to free commercial traffic over their territory and Pacific Ocean Ports.
19- Two women talk near the market, in the Wilaya of Laayoune, Tindouf, Algeria, Monday, May 16, 2016. After Spanish colonizers left Western Sahara in 1975, Morocco and Mauritania went to war over it. By 1979, Mauritania had pulled out and Morocco had taken over. But fighting continued between 15,000 Sahrawi Polisario guerrillas and Morocco’s U.S. equipped army. A U.N. negotiated truce in 1991 called for a referendum on the region’s future, but that vote never happened. The refugee camps of Tindouf has a population of around 160,000 and it´s in the ranking of the forgotten crisis by the Europe Union.
20- A girl is giving her final exam in the school for women at the Wilaya of Laayoune. Tindouf, Algeria, Saturday, May 15, 2016. Among the most common causes of school dropouts in women is pregnancy at an early age. In Tinduf only primary education is provided at the camps, to access at secondary education young people must travel to the Algerian cities, where they meet with new challenges.
21- A women hikes an old rifle while dances during the celebrations of 43 anniversary of the outbreak of armed struggle against the Spanish colonization, at the Wilaya of Auserd, Tindouf, Algeria, Thursday, May 19,2016. At 1973, five Sahrawi Polisary Front attacked Janquet Quesat´s border post to release to El Ouali, leader of the Independence movement. In the Sahrawi society, the role of woman has great relevance, and if analysed in depth is far from many other Islamic countries. After the Moroccan occupation of Western Sahara, women became a key player in the development of the people in exile. They were fundamental for create the new state, developing the necessary measures to ensure that, within the refugee camps, organization and life were at least hard as possible.
22- Mufida Zadfi Zalik (left), 16 years old, and Janaza Zadfi Zalik (right) 12 watch their cell phone, near the water wells that feed the Wilaya of Laayoune, Tindouf, Algeria, Monday, May 16,2016. Both travelled on several occasions to Spain under the ”Holidays in Peace ” program, which allow young Saharawi´s until 12 years old to spend the summer months in the house of host families in the Spanish peninsula. The children have medical checks and avoid the hottest months, which according to the records are the closest thing to hell on earth with temperatures exceeding 50° degrees.
23- The Zadfi Zalik family playing in their house, at the Wilaya of Laayoune. Tindouf, Algeria, Sunday, May 15, 2016.The camps are divided in 5 wilayas and each divided into 5 or 6 darias. The Wilaya of Laayoune is the biggest and with more population.The Polisario Front has governed the camps since the beginning, fourty years ago. They have implemented policies and taken decisions that affect the camp, the people are subject to the Polisario constitution and laws, who operates courts, prisons, and an internal police force, controls the camps borders, and is the only authority which camp residents have regular contact. This is the only case of a refugee camp in the world that is administrated by her own people.
24- Mariam Ali Salem is outside her Haima, a tent used by Sahrawi at the desert, in the outskirts of the Wilaya of Laayoune, Tindouf, Algeria, Monday, May 16, 2016. During the exodus that took place after the Moroccan invasion, women were fundamentals in the establishment of refugee camps in Tindouf, while the men were fighting the forces of Morocco and Mauritania in simultaneously. The exodus hard nights, fleeing away from the napalm bombing of the Moroccan aviation are remembered like a Tsunami that swept everything in its path. The melfa, typical Sahrawi dress was all they had the women to protect themselves in frost nights and hot days.
25- A kid´s hand is holding the door at the entrance of a Saint Death chapel, where can reads, in Spanish: “Light candles here” and a drawed representation of the Death, in San Vicente city, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Wednesday, September 20, 2017. One of the most important Saint Death sanctuary in the outskirts of Buenos Aires is in San Vicente, where the people arrives the 20 of each month to ask for favours to the saint.
26- Three children wait as the parents light candles to Saint Death at The Carolina Sanctuary, in Florencio Varela city, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Sunday, October 8, 2017. As the result of internal migration in Argentina since the 1960s the Sainth Death veneration has been extended from Paraguay and the Northeast of Argentina to Greater Buenos Aires, where the cult is growing.
27- Human hands over a wall illuminated by candles in a Saint Death sanctuary in the San Vicente town, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Wednesday, September 20, 2017. Roberto Deniz is a medicine man who is the owner of the sanctuary, he arrived at Buenos Aires from the Corrientes province twenty years ago.
28- Thousands of pilgrims raise their hands and pray in honour of Saint Death in the chapel of the Virgin of Itatí, outskirts Empedrado City, Corrientes, Argentina, Sunday, August 20, 2017. This is the most important moment of the annual celebration.
29- At the left the Saint Cayetano figure, one of the most important saint in Argentina and to the right, in red, a Gauchito Gil figure, at a Saint Death sanctuary in Avellaneda city, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Monday, October 16, 2017. The Gauchito Gil is a legendary character of Argentina’s popular culture, that according to the legend, was a known devotee of Saint Death.
30- Nilda Amelia Lopez breaks in tears and emotion, in front of an Argentine flag, with a Saint Death figure in one hand and a Gauchito Gil figure in the other one, while a pick up with the Saint Death medallion advances on the National Route 12 towards the chapel of the Virgin of Itatí during the procession, outskirts Empedrado City, Corrientes, Argentina, Sunday, August 20, 2017.
31- The crowd is desperate to touch the sacred image of Saint Death, a kind of medallion of a skeletal man, with a scythe in his hand and where it reads in spanish: ¨Sagardo La Muerte¨, which means: “Sacred the Death”, at the entrance of the chapel of the Virgin of Itatí, outskirts Empedrado City, Corrientes, Argentina, Sunday, August 20, 2017. According to the legend, the medallion is the most sacred object related to Sainth Death in Argentina and it belongs to the Barrios family, so on August 20, the saint’s day, the Barrios family makes a massive procession its honour in Empedrado, the cradle of the faith.
32- A white representation of Saint Death is for sale at the “Orixas Kingdom” santeria, in La Boca neighbourhood, Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, Argentina, Friday, October 20, 2017. The religious cult expands within the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, where Jorge Bergoglio, better known as Pope Francis, was born.
33- Antonio Fernandez poses for a picture in front of a Gauchito Gil figure at The Carolina Sanctuary, in Florencio Varela city, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Sunday, October 8, 2017.
34- Stamps of Saint Death and remains of melted candles are part of the street sanctuary in La Boca neighbourhood, Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, Argentina, Friday, October 20, 2017.
35- The crowd watches the bands playing Chamamé -a folk music genre from the Argentine Northeast- and people dancing while the sun falls. Saint Death sanctuary, in the outskirts of Empedrado City, Corrientes, Argentina. Sunday, August 20, 2017.
36- A man with a wide-brimmed hat walks through the entrance of the Saint Death sanctuary at the end of the celebration, outskirts of Empedrado City, Corrientes, Argentina, Sunday, August 20, 2017.